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LEARNING ENGLISH 15

by S.P. Iyer


Adjectives and adverbs

These are called modifiers

An adjective modifies or describes a NOUN or a PRONOUN
 
Adjectives answer questions such as-    Which one? -How many? - What kind of?
I will take that pencil.   (Which pencil ?  that  pencil
Two Ice cream cups       (How many cups ? two cups
John spotted a huge animal    (What kind animal ?  huge animal
 
Kinds of adjectives
1-   Demonstrative adjectives
this/that/these/those  are called demonstrative adjectives  answering the question which one(s)
Note- this/that/these can also act as pronouns taking the place of nouns i.e Give me that and I will give you this
 
2-Common adjectives
It describes noun in a common way and not capitalized unless it is a first word in a sentense
i.e    funny/red/juicy/soft/colorful/bitter/warm  etc
 
3-Proper adjective
Proper adjectives are formed from proper nouns
You all know that a proper noun names a specific person,place,thing ,idea,animal,quality and action and it is capitalized
Consequently the proper adjectives must also be capitalized
Proper noun          proper adjective
America                  American
Asia                        Asian
Africa                      African
 
4-Indefinite adjectives
They describ general qualities
i,e    all/another/any/both/each/either/few/many/more/most/other /several/some
         Some  students enjoing reading story books
         Many languages are very difficult to learn
 
5-Articles
They are special types of objectives that point to nouns
        a - Indefenite article-  They points to any one of a group of people or things without pointing to a
              specific person or a thing
               The two indefinite articles are       an     and     a
                an    used before nouns begin with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u and y sometimes)
                 a      used before nouns that begin with consonant(all the letters that are not vowel)
         b- This points to a specific thing or a person
              There is only one definite article   ---   the
Note
Some students use the same adjectives throughout their writings.
You can avoid thiss type of writings by learning the words that have similar meaning which are called
SYNONYMS
i.e       small/little          old/ancient     big/large       pretty/attractive      key/main    new/fresh
YOU CAN FIND SYNONYMS IN A BOOK CALLED  - THESAURUS.  It is similar to a dictionary
 
 
Comparison of ADJECTIVES
POSITIVE                 COMPARATIVE         SUPERLATIVE
(describing one)       (comparing two)     (comparing more than two)
These are called degrees
 
great                        greater                    greatest     -add  er    and     est if the adjective end with a consonant
happy                       happier                    happiest
ugly                          uglier                        ugliest       -change  y   to  i  and add er  and  est if the adjective end
                                                                                     with   y
many                        more                         most     )    -Irregular adjectives  that don't follow the rules
good                         better                       best      )
bad                           worse                       worst    )
little                           littler                        littlest        -add    r   and  st  if the adjestive end with   e
 
 
 
 
Usually an adjective comes in front of the noun it is describing
 
The adjective can also come after a linking verb   - to be   and describe the subject of a sentence
It is called a predicate adjective
The Creature       was                    huge 
 (noun)               (linking verb)       (adjective)
 
 
Contd
 
 
 
 
             
 
 
           

 








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