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Quizzes > Filipino (Tagalog) > Beginner/Intermediate >

TAGALOG SENTENCE

by happymagnet calalay


VERBAL FOCUS
Verbal focus is very important in the Tagalog language. It indicates the thematic role of the subject ( subject = the ang- marked noun phrase or Ang pronoun/s in the sentence).
Let’s study two focuses: ACTOR AND THEME. If the subject functions as the actor in a sentence, the verb is in actor focus. If the subject functions as a theme, the verb is in theme focus. This is roughly equivalent to ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICES in English grammar, but only up to a certain extent as there are other focuses in the Tagalog Language.

EXPLANATION:
When we say ACTOR, it is the DOER of the action. It means it is the SUBJECT of the sentence. Subject pronoun/s are the ANG PRONOUN/s. This roughly equivalent to ACTIVE VOICE.
ACTIVE VOICE sentences have a clear agent of the action. The subject is the doer of the action.
When we say THEME, it is the RECEIVER of the action. It means it is the OBJECT of the sentence. This roughly equivalent to PASSIVE VOICE.
PASSIVE VOICE sentences remove or displace the agent of the action. It gives emphasize to the receiver of the action(direct object).
In spoken Tagalog, verbs for actor focus is different from verb for theme focus. We use verbal affixes for actor focus and theme focus.

=========================================================
ALL PRONOUNS
There are three types of pronouns in Tagalog.
1) ANG PRONOUNS (subject pronouns )
ANG is called a focus marker, it marks the subject, or the actor of a sentence.

2) NG PRONOUNS
NG pronounced “nang” is called the out of focus marker and it usually describes the object or the one or theme talked about.

3) SA PRONOUNS
Sa is a direction or place marker also it introduces the beneficiary of an action (indirect object).






REMEMBER THIS!!!
ANG PRONOUNS, also known as subject pronouns. ANG PRONOUNS are the words we use as the SUBJECT FOCUS of a sentence. ANG PRONOUNS are used in ACTIVE VOICE sentences because they are the agent of the action “the subject(s)”.
In English, the normal order is the SUBJECT + PREDICATE. Tagalog sentence also starts with Tagalog subject pronoun/s and INVERTIBLE. Invertible means constructing tagalog sentence using another pattern. In Tagalog, we have many patterns that can be used.
The sentence is INVERTIBLE when the predicate comes first before the subject: a modifier/complement or verb before the subject.

ACTIVE VOICE /ACTOR FOCUS SENTENCE
ACTIVE VOICE sentences have a clear agent of the action. The subject is the doer of the action.
When we say ACTOR, it is the DOER of the action. It means it is the SUBJECT of the sentence. Subject pronoun/s are the ANG PRONOUN/s. This roughly equivalent to ACTIVE VOICE.

ANG PRONOUNS ( ACTOR PRONOUNS) :
PERSONAL PRONOUNS

I = AKO (1ST PERSON)
YOU =IKAW /KA (2ND PERSON)
HE/SHE = SIYA (3RD PERSON SING.)
WE = KAMI (1ST PERSON PLU.)
NOTE: KAMI includes only the speaker and not the person being spoken to
YOU (PEOPLE) = KAYO (2ND PERSON PLU.)
WE = TAYO (ALL) (1ST PERSON PLU.)
THEY = SILA (3ND PERSON PLU.)
DEFINITE ARTICLE “THE”
ANG + NOUN (SINGULAR)
ANG MGA + NOUN (PLURAL)
ANG marks a given noun as the subject of the sentence
SI + NAME (SINGULAR)
SINA + NAMES (PLURAL)
SI is another maker to indicate PERSONAL NOUN. Names of People act as the subject of the sentence.
ARTICLES are words that restrict the meaning of a noun. The words “the”, “a”, and “an” are articles in English. Tagalog uses grammatical markers in place of articles. The equivalent of the English definite article “THE” is the TAGALOG marker “ANG”.

YOU = IKAW (2ND PERSON SINGULAR)

You are beautiful.
Subject = you predicate=are beautiful
Ikaw ay maganda.

You are a doctor.
Ikaw ay isang doctor.

IKAW= KA (ay is deleted)
You are beautiful.
Ikaw ay maganda,
Maganda ka.

You are a doctor.
Ikaw ay isang doctor.
Doktor ka.

You are wrong.
Ikaw ay mali.
Mali ka.

You are handsome.
Ikaw ay pogi.
Pogi ka.

==========================================================================
SHE/HE= “SIYA” (3RD PERSON SINGULAR)
In Tagalog, SIYA is either the pronoun she or he
She is beautiful.
Siya ay maganda.
The adjective beautiful describes a woman.
(INVERTED: Maganda siya.)

He is handsome.
Siya ay pogi…
Again, handsome describes a man.
INVERTED: Pogi siya.

WE = KAMI (1st PERSON PLURAL as You PEOPLE)
We are going to Disneyland.
Kami ay pupunta sa Disneyland.
INVERTED: Pupunta kami sa Disneyland.
Rootword:punta = go pupunta=going (progressive)
-UM- VERB

We are leaving.
Kami ay aalis.
INVERTED: Aalis kami. Rootword: alis = leave aalis=leaving (progressive)
-UM- VERB
KAYO = 2ND PERSON PLURAL
NOTE: The speaker is included but not the person being spoken to
You (people) are going to Disneyland.
Kayo ay pupunta sa Disney land.
INVERTED: Pupunta kayo sa Disneyland.

THEY = SILA (3RD PERSON PLURAL)
They will go to the province.
Sila ay pupunta sa probinsya.
INVERTED: Pupunta sila sa probinsya.
Rootword: punta=go pupunta=will go (future)
-UM- VERB

TAYO (means all )
We are Filipinos.
Tayo ay mga Pilipino.
INVERTED: Mga Pilipino tayo.

We are going to get flowers in the garden (will=are going indicates future)
Tayo kukuha ng mga bulaklak sa hardin.
INVERTED: Kukuha tayo ng mga bulaklak sa hardin.
Rootword: kuha = get kukuha= will get (future)
-UM- VERB


THE = ANG (SINGULAR) OR ANG MGA (PLURAL)

The children are playing basketball.
INVERTED: Ang mga bata ay naglalaro ng basketball.
Rootword: laro = play naglalaro=playing (progressive)
MAG/NAG - VERB

The dogs are noisy.
Ang mga aso ay maiingay.
INVERTED: Maiingay ang mga aso.
NOTE: maingay is noisy. In tagalog, we pronounce the 2nd syllabus twice to describe more than one subject/thing

SI/SINA MARKER
SI + NAME/ SINA + NAME1, NAME2,..
Ate is helping in household choirs.
Si ate ay tumutulong sa gawaing bahay.
Ang ate ay tumutulong sa gawaing bahay.
INVERTED : TUMUTULONG SA GAWAING-BAHAY SI(ang) ATE.

Kuya is playing basketball.
Si kuya ay naglalaro ng basketball.
Ang kuya ay naglalaro ng basket ball.
INVERTED: NAGLALARO NG BASKETBALL SI (ang) KUYA.

Aby is absent.
Si Abby ay absent.
INVERTED : Absent si Aby.

Didi is stinky.
Si Didi ay mabaho.
INVERTED: Mabaho si Didi.

Where is Doc Alba?
Nasaan si Doctor Alba?
Si Doctor Alba ay nasaan?

Where is nanay?
Nasaan si nanay?
Si nanay ay nasaan?

Joey, Edmund and Brent are planning to go to Japan.
Sina Joey, Edmund at Brent ay nagpaplanong pumunta sa Japan.





English
SENTENCE STRUCTURE






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